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The following objectives should be achieved by the student during this course. All of the objectives are preceded by the phrase, "The student should be able to:"
l. List the qualities of
a primary standard.
2. Distinguish between a primary standard and a secondary standard.
3. Define the grades of chemicals (ACS, primary standard tech., etc.).
4. $Treat analytical data statistically and be able to determine if a questionable result should be rejected.
5. Describe substitution weighing and give the advantages of substitution weighing. (This would include defining any terms listed as an advantage.)
6. Describe how to obtain a suitable analytical sample and give the properties of suitable analytical samples.
7. Apply chemical equilibrium data to perform quantitative analysis.
8. $Work the assigned problems.
9. Apply chemical equilibrium principles to determine the equilibrium expressions for dissociations and formations; also, work any associated problems.
10. Define acids and bases.
11. Apply the Bronsted Definition to given cases--especially the idea of conjugate acids and bases; also, apply to buffers.
12. Given the pH, calculate the H+ molarity; or, given the H+ molarity, calculate the pH (pOH).
13. Calculate the pH of the following types of aqueous solutions: (In each case, ionization constants and concentrations will be given.) weak acids, weak bases, buffers, salts of strong acids and strong bases, salts of strong acids and weak bases, salts of strong bases and weak acids, salts of weak acids and weak bases, strong acids, strong bases.
14. Recognize and apply multiple equilibria situations.
15. Define titration and list the requirements for a titration.
16. Calculate titration problems (including back titrations).
17. Define buffer capacity and work associated problems.
18. Explain acid-base indicators, and show why the change is over a 2 pH unit change.
19. Construct a titration curve for a weak acid-strong base titration or for a weak base-strong acid titration.
20. Given a titration curve for a weak acid-strong base (or weak base-strong acid), identify the regions, give the pKa or pKb for the substance titrated, discuss the feasibility of the titration, calculate either percent pure or equivalent weight.
21. Discuss the application of acid-base titrations--include Kjdahl, carbonate, and other applications.
22. List the types of literature sources in the chemical literature. Also, define and give illustrations of each type of literature.
23. Give one example of each type of literature source in 22 that applies to analytical chemistry.
24. List the steps that you would take in searching for a suitable analytical method for the analysis of your real life determination.
25. Define gravimetric analysis.
26. List the requirements for a suitable gravimetric determination.
27. Discuss factors which limit the purity of precipitates, and describe how to insure pure precipitates.
28. Define homogeneous precipitation, give the advantages of the method, and give an example of the method.
29. Define and state the applications and advantages of the following: carriers in trace analysis, colloids, peptization, gravimetric factors, masking agents, inhibitors, digestion, filtration, ignition, constant weight, post precipitation, co-precipitation, and washing of precipitates. List an example of each of the items listed, and point out both pitfalls and disadvantages of each of the items listed.
30. List the requirements for precipitation titration methods and for complexometric titration methods.
31. Demonstrate an understanding of gravimetric factors by use in gravimetric determinations and in working related problems.
32. List and describe the methods used for determining the endpoint in precipitation titration methods. Note any conditions required for a given method (i.e., pH control, etc.).
33. Compare and contrast monodentate ligands and chelates for suitable complexometric titrants.
34. List and explain the uses of complexes in analysis, also give examples of each use.
35. Describe the effect of pH and pK formation on complexometric titrations.
36. Describe the effect of pH on redox titration methods.
37. Given a titration curve (pH, ppt., complexometric, or redox), and determine the feasibility of the titration method.
38. List the types of EDTA (or complexometric) titration methods. Give an example of each type.
39. Be able to determine both Ca and Mg concentrations in hard water.
40. List the criteria for selection of an indicator for complexometric titration methods.
41. Define the following types of solvents: amphiprotic, non-ionizable, aprotic (inert). Give an example of the use of each of the types in both titrations and in solvent extraction.
42. Define Ion Exchange methods, and list the criteria and limitations.
43. Apply Ksp values to see what will precipitate first and what concentrations will be left in solution.
44. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods of aliquots.
45. Define oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent, and apply to given equations.
46. List and discuss the requirements for redox volumetric determinations.
47. Calculate the direction of a reaction and Keq from Eo values.
48. Determine if a redox reaction is quantitative from Eo values.
49. Discuss the types of redox titration indicators.
50. Discuss the use, preparation, advantages and disadvantages of:
K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Ce(SO4)2, and I2 as oxidizing agents;
and As2O3, FeSO4 (NH4)2SO4, Na2S2O3, and iron wire as reducing agents.
51. Apply the Nernst equation to given situations.
52. List and discuss problems associated with real-life samples.
53. List and discuss problems associated with the location and selection of a method of determination.
54. *List and discuss the requirements for an electrogravimetric (electrodeposition) determination.
55. *List and discuss the requirements for a controlled current coulometric titration.
56. *Define and discuss the following: overvoltage, deposition potential, current efficiency, 96,500.
57. *List and discuss the desired properties of a good electroplate. Include those factors which are needed to produce a good plate.
58. Define Beer's Law and relate it to %T. (A = abc; A = e bc; -log10T = A)
59. List the requirements for a quantitative spectrophotometric determination.
60. List and discuss the requirements for liquid-liquid extraction.
61. Discuss the number of extractions and the volume of extractant per extraction.
62. Discuss the importance and types of separations in Analytical Chemistry.
63. Discuss percent extracted (%E) and factors relating to percent extracted.
64.$ Treat all data using Excel and appropriate statistical tests.
* May not be covered. Check with Dr. Sherren.
$ Objective that applies all term.
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